RPQR

The Resolution of the Kurdish Issue in Turkey : Choice or Necessity?

Posted by: Phill Tags: There is no tags | Categories: RPQR

September
27

Assessment paper published by the Democratic Progress Institute.

This report examines the Kurdish Peace Process within Turkey, considering the historical origins of the Kurdish issue, highlighting key events that led to the 2008-2011 Oslo Process and the 2013-2015 Peace Process. The study assesses both peace processes and explores why both processes failed to resolve the Kurdish issue. The report also examines the future of the Kurdish Peace Process in Turkey.

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Everyday peace and conflict: (un)privileged interactions in Kirkuk, Iraq

Posted by: Phill Tags: There is no tags | Categories: RPQR

September
27

Article by Dylan O’Driscoll.

Taking as a starting point the conviction that everyday interactions carry the potential to be either conflictual or peaceful, this article examines people’s everyday behaviour in the deeply divided city of Kirkuk, Iraq. Using the historic bazaar in Kirkuk city as a site of analysis, and through a research survey of 511 people, it focuses on interactions between Kurds, Arabs and Turkmen. The article draws on Bourdieu’s theory of symbolic capital and takes an intersectional approach to analyse the everyday interactions in the bazaar to create a better understanding of the role of space and privilege. The results demonstrate that for the most part, at the everyday level people carry out acts of everyday peace rather than conflict. However, when everyday conflict does occur, those with the highest symbolic capital are the most likely actors. Additionally, although gender does influence people’s actions, ethnosectarian identity has greater influence in many areas related to everyday peace and conflict. On a practical level, the article argues that such an understanding can connect better to policymaking and peacebuilding as it can point to where and how peacebuilders should focus their attention in order to promote and enhance peace within people’s everyday lives.

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September
27

Article by Kseniya Oksamytna and Magnus Lundgren.

Contemporary peacekeeping operations carry out many disparate tasks, which has triggered a debate about “Christmas Tree mandates.” Did the UN Secretariat or the UN Security Council drive this expansion? Using original data on nineteen UN peacekeeping missions, 1998–2014, this article compares peacekeeping tasks recommended by the Secretariat to those mandated by the Council. It finds that the two bodies expressed different preferences regarding the nature, number, and novelty of peacekeeping tasks. First, the Council dropped Secretariat-recommended tasks as often as it added new ones on its own initiative. Second, the two bodies disagreed more over peacebuilding and peacemaking tasks than over peacekeeping tasks. Third, the Council preferred to be the one to introduce novel tasks that had not appeared in previous mandates. Finally, among the countries that “held the pen” on peacekeeping resolutions, the United States was the most prone to dropping Secretariat-proposed tasks and the least willing to add tasks itself.

Read it here open access!

Ceasefires and State Order-Making in Naga Northeast India

Posted by: Phill Tags: There is no tags | Categories: RPQR

June
21

Article by Alex Waterman

The 1997 Indo–Naga ceasefire is one of the world’s longest truces. Although formally-agreed rules technically regulate the state-rebel relationship, the rules themselves and their applicability beyond the Indian state of Nagaland are ambiguous and open to interpretation. Far from static, the ceasefire represents an evolving cluster of ‘armed orders’ oscillating between coexistence and limited conflict [Staniland, Paul. “Armed Politics and the Study of Intrastate Conflict,” Journal of Peace Research 54, no. 4 (July 1, 2017): 459–67. doi:10.1177/0022343317698848]. Indian state actors display intriguing variations in their approaches towards these orders, from restraint and de-escalation in some circumstances to aggressive local counterinsurgency in others. To date, however, existing research on order within ceasefires focus on rebel perspectives. Building on existing efforts to reconceptualise ceasefires as arenas in which political order is negotiated and constructed, this article re-introduces the state’s role in order-making, locating these processes within wider rebel and non-state attempts to do so. Analysing armed orders in the Naga ceasefire, it reveals a fascinating spectrum of bargaining, signalling and negotiation over the formal and informal rules of armed orders. This challenges the notion that ceasefires simply lock in state-armed group orders, but instead create new spaces for armed order’s renegotiation.

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Home-Grown Peace: Civil Society Roles in Ceasefire Monitoring

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June
21

Article by Margaux Pinaud

In search of innovative solutions to address the growing complexity of civil wars, peacebuilding practitioners and conflict analysts have seriously begun exploring ways to involve national civil society actors in monitoring ceasefires. In contrast, the academic literature on the subject so far is surprisingly scarce and focuses mainly on the role of external third parties. This article argues that involving civil society in ceasefire monitoring mechanisms supports peace processes through four pathways: exposing noncompliance to ceasefire commitments; facilitating communication within and between conflict parties; promoting peace process issues among conflict parties; and socializing outside spoilers and raising public awareness about ceasefires. Based on a case study of the civil society-led National Monitoring Committee for the Ceasefire Code of Conduct (NMCC) appointed in the May 2006 ceasefire between the government of Nepal and Maoist rebels, the article shows that ceasefire monitoring by civil society can effectively prevent major ceasefire violations and support the parties’ transition to a peace agreement through the four pathways. The article also stresses that the NMCC faced commonly encountered constraints related to a lack of perceived impartiality, resources and diversity. It concludes that there is scope for a better operationalization of ceasefire monitoring mechanisms.

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Watchdogs of Pause: The Challenges of Ceasefire Monitoring in Yemen

Posted by: Phill Tags: There is no tags | Categories: RPQR

June
21

Article by Júlia Palik

In 2018, the Government of Yemen and the Houthis concluded the UN-mediated Stockholm Agreement in which they agreed on a ceasefire in Hodeidah to be overseen by a UN monitoring mission. As of 2020, the implementation of the ceasefire is stalled, and the humanitarian situation has not improved. The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive analysis of the challenges that UNMHA monitors have faced in Yemen. The empirical analysis builds on the literature on ceasefires and monitoring missions and focuses on four key factors: agreement quality, changes in the operational environment, the monitoring mission’s relation to the mediator, and conflict parties’ commitment to the ceasefire. I apply a qualitative case-study method, reviewing primary and secondary sources and conducting interviews with monitoring officers and local Yemenis. I find that monitors’ ability to carry out their mandate was hampered by the quality of the agreement and conflict parties’ perception of bias. Second, I find that the Houthis, operating from a position of relative strength prevented monitors from carrying out their mandate. Findings from the Yemeni case are relevant for other monitoring missions that are deployed in ongoing violent contexts, such as Libya or Ukraine.

Find it here.